The Badi' Calendar
The Bahá'í calendar, also known as the Badí' calendar, was devised by the Báb and confirmed by Bahá'ulláh. Being a solar calendar, the Bahá'í calendar begins on the first day of spring. Holy days, Anniversaries and Feast Days are observed and celebrated throughout the year.
The Bahá'í year consists of 19 months of 19 days each (i.e., 361 days), with the addition of certain 'intercalary days' (four in ordinary and five in leap years) between the eighteenth and nineteenth months in order to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Báb named the months [as well as the days of the week and several of the years comprising a cycle] after the attributes of God. The Bahá'í New Year, like the ancient Persian New Year, is astronomically fixed, commencing at the March [vernal] equinox, and the Bahá'í era commences with the year of the Báb's declaration (i.e. 1844 A.D., 1260 A.H.).
The days of the week are as follows:
Days Arabic Name Translation English Name
1st Jalál Glory Saturday
2nd Jamál Beauty Sunday
3rd Kamál Perfection Monday
4th Fidál Grace Tuesday
5th 'Idál Justice Wednesday
6th Istijlál Majesty Thursday
7th Istiqlál Independence Friday
Bahá'u'lláh designated...[the intercalary days] the Ayyám-i-Há and ordained that they should immediately precede the month of 'Alá', which is the month of fasting. He enjoined upon His followers to devote these days to feasting, rejoicing, and charity. Immediately upon the termination of these intercalary days, Bahá'u'lláh ordained the month of fasting to begin...The Báb has, moreover, in His Writings...divided the years following the date of His Revelation in cycles of nineteen years each...Each cycle of nineteen years is called Váhid. Nineteen cycles constitute a period called Kull-i-Shay'. The numerical value of the word Váhid is nineteen, that of Kull-i-Shay' is 361. Váhid signifies unity, and is symbolic of the unity of God...The names of the years in...[a cycle]...are as follows:
Years Arabic Name Translation
1st Alif A.
2nd Bá' B
3rd Ab Father
4th Dál D.
5th Báb Gate
6th Váv V.
7th Abad Eternity
8th Jád Generosity
9th Bahá Splendour
10th Hubb Love
11th Bahháj Delightful
12th Javáb Answer
13th Ahad Single
14th Vahháb Bountiful
15th Vidád Affection
16th Badí' Beginning
17th Bahí Luminous
18th Abhá Most Luminous
19th Váhid Unity
Source: The Bahá'í World, Volume XVIII 1979-1983, pp. 598, 600-601.